GB No. 4, spring 1991
The coast in Poland is about 500 km long. There are two types of coastline: the cliff coast about altogether 100 km long and the dune coast 400 km long.
The cliff coast consists of Pleistocene formations, namely moraine clays and intermoraine loams, sands and gravels. The dune coast is mainly built of Holocene sand formations.
The height of the cliffs and seashore dunes varies from 3-10 meters. Actually, their abrasion rapidity is 1.0 m/year. The abrasion causes landslides, especially on the cliffs.
Attempts at preventing the abrasion process have been made for 100 years. Grains, light and heavy sea bands, prefabricates and rock filling have been built. Lately beach nourishment on some sections of coast has begun. One of the elements of the protection system are break waters localized at the entrance to small harbors. At present hydrotechnical protection of the coast exists for 22% of the coastline, ie. 126km, and is concentrated in 20 regions.
doc. dr inż. Wiesław Subotowicz